上記の広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。
新しい記事を書く事で広告が消せます。

知名的「瑪麗有一隻小羊」、「倫敦鐵橋倒下來」等童謠,就是所謂的鵝媽媽童謠。鵝媽媽童謠隨著時間經過,内容不斷擴大,包涵數百首童謠。而童謠中又為何會有血腥、殘酷的句子呢?這可能就要從鵝媽媽童謠的時代背景來看了。
起源
鵝媽媽童謠確實的流傳時間,至今尚無定論。大抵廣為人知是在十八世紀,不過也有十四世紀就出現的說法。因為大部份的歌詞為了順口的緣故,句末都會押韻,而有些字隨著時代不同會有不同發音。所以有人發現,某某歌的歌詞如果要押韻的話,應該用十四世紀的發音才對,因此就有從十四世紀開始流傳的說法。
時代背景
就十八世紀而言,英國發生了工業革命。促使資本主義產生,進而令無產階級發達。包括新階級的形成、失業問題、勞工問題、人口問題(如何加糧食以解決民食)等。使得大多數的人民成了資本主義的工具和犧牲品。他們生活在骯髒破爛的貧民窟中,時時受到生產過剩而導致的失業威脅。
例如大家耳熟能詳的故事〝灰姑娘〞,可能對後母與壞姊姊都相當深惡痛絕,然而,試想,在一個貧窮的家庭,如果又要養育一堆孩子的話,情非得已的後母對自己的孩子偏心一點也無可厚非吧?這時候或許就會犧牲掉不是自己親生的孩子。
令一方面,東、西方對死亡的態度不同,東方人非常避諱談到「死」這個字眼或相關話題;西方人則不然,尤其對於不知死亡為何物的兒童而言,可說是童言無忌。


1

My mother has killed me,
My father is eating me,
My brothers and sisters sit under the table,
Picking up my bones,
And they bury them under the cold marble stones.

我的母親殺了我,
我的父親在吃我,
我的兄弟姐妹坐在桌旁,
收拾着我的残骸,
然后将他們埋葬在冰冷的大理石下。


2
Lizzie Borden

Lizzie Borden took an axe,
Hit her father forty whacks.
When she saw what she had done,
She hit her mother forty-one.

里玆·波頓拿起斧头
打了她爸爸四十下
当她看見自己所做的一切
她又打了她媽媽四十一下

备注: 出自《少年的孵化之音》-《布丁小姐的悲劇》

一个女孩如此拭殺父母的事是真實存在的。1893年美国的麻薩諸塞州,32嵗的里玆·波頓在家中拿起斧頭殺害了自己的父親和繼母,手段残忍。在19世紀的美国引起軒然大波。如今事發的那屋子成為了博物舘,而里玆殺人事件到現在還是研究的對象,還被拍成電影等。在网上可以找到不少相関的資料。


3
Who killed Cock Robin

Who killed Cock Robin?
I, said the Sparrow,
With my bow and arrow,
I killed Cock Robin.

誰殺死了知更鳥?
我,燕子說,
用我的弓和箭,
我殺了知更鳥。

Who saw him die?
I, said the Fly,
With my little eye,
I saw him die.

誰看見他的死?
我,蒼蠅說,
用我小小的眼睛,
我看見他的死。

Who caught his blood?
I, said the Fish,
With my little dish,
I caught his blood.

誰取走了他的血?
我,魚說,
用我小小的碟子,
我取走了他的血。

Who'll make his shroud?
I, said the Bettle,
With my thread and needle,
I'll make the shroud.

誰来為他制喪衣?
我,甲虫說,
用我的綫和針,
我来為他制喪衣。

Who'll dig his grave?
I, said the Owl,
With my pick and shovel,
I'll dig his grave.

誰来為他掘墓?
我,猫頭鷹說,
用我的鋤和鏟
我来為他掘墓。

Who'll be the parson?
I, said the Rook,
With my little book,
I'll be the parson.

誰来為他布道?
我,烏鴉說,
用我小小的册子,
我来為他布道。

Who'll be the clerk?
I, said the Lark,
If it's not in the dark,
I'll be the clerk.

誰来為他記史?
我,云雀說,
如果不是在暗中,
我来為他記史。

Who'll carry the link?
I, said the Linnet,
I'll fetch it in a minute,
I'll carry the link.

誰来秉持火把?
我,紅雀說,
我馬上就把它拿来,
我来秉持火把。

Who'll be the chief mourner?
I, said the Dove,
I mourn for my love,
I'll be chief mourner.

誰来充当喪主?
我,鴿子說,
我来悼念我的愛人,
我来充当喪主。

Who'll carry the coffin?
I, said the Kite,
If it's not through the night,
I'll carry the coffin.

誰来运載棺材?
我,鳶說。
如果不用穿過夜晚,
我将运載棺材。

Who'll bear the pall?
We, said the Wren,
Both the cock and the hen,
We'll bear the pall.

誰来拉上棺罩?
我们,鷦鷯說,
夫婦倆一起,
我們来拉上棺罩。

Who'll sing a psalm?
I, said the Thrush,
As she sat on a bush,
I'll sing a psalm.

誰来吟唱圣歌?
我,歌鶇說,
她坐在灌木上,
我来吟唱圣歌。

Who'll toll the bell?
I, said the Bull,
Because I can pull,
I'll toll the bell.

誰来鳴响喪鈡?
我,牛說,
因為我能夠拉,
我来鳴响喪鈡。

All the birds of the air
Fell a-sighing and a-sobbing,
When they heard the bell toll
For poor Cock Robin.

空中所有的鳥
嘆息并且悲哀
当他們听到喪鈡响起
為了可怜的知更鸟。


備注: 收錄于《誰殺了知更鳥》

嗯,繼續,我發現了《誰殺死了知更鳥》的完整版,最后還要添加几行如下:
NOTICE       
To all it concerns,
This notice apprises,
The Sparrow's for trial,
At next bird assizes.
启事
所有有関者,
這則启事通知,
麻雀将受審判,
在下一次鳥類審判中。



4
When a good King Arthur rule this land

When good King Arthur ruled this land,
He was a goodly king;
He stole three pecks of barley-meal
To make a bag-pudding.
当亞瑟王治理這片土地的時候
他是一位優秀的王
他偷了三佩克大麦
為了做一个大布丁

A bag-pudding the king did make,
And stuffed it well with plums;
And in it put great lumps of fat,
As big as my two thumbs.

王做的大布丁
塞滿了李子干
還放進了一塊大奶油
像我的两个拇指那麽大

The king and queen did eat thereof,
And noblemen beside;
And what they could not eat that night,
The queen next morning fried.

王和后吃了該吃的那份
吃了身邊貴族們的那份,
還吃了那天晚上不該吃的那份,
第二天早上皇后被油煎了

備注:出自《少年的孵化之音》-《布丁小姐的悲劇》

世上留傳著許多関于亞瑟王的精彩故事,以及英勇的園桌武士的傳奇。他大約是在一千五百年前統治英国,打了許多場勝仗。但歷史上是否存在這位王還有待查證。這首関于亞瑟王的童謠揭示了古代王族中的残忍吧。


5
Solomon Grundy

Solomon Grundy,
Born on a Monday,
Christened on Tuesday,
Married on Wednesday,
Took ill on Thursday,
Worse on Friday,
Died on Saturday,
Buried on Sunday.
This is the end
Of Solomon Grundy.

所羅門·格朗迪
星期一出生
星期二受洗
星期三結婚
星期四生病
星期五病危
星期六死亡
星期天焚尸
這就是
所羅門·格朗迪的結束

備注: 出自《God Child vol 5》- 《周日的所羅門·格朗迪》

這个算是《God Child》里的一个特別短篇。這首童謠我自己是很喜歡啦。把人的一生所会幾經到的事融匯在這个短短的童謠里——一个星期里的7天。后来想到也看到過類似的詩歌,就是用一个星期来描述一莊事的,那个格式就是源自于此吧。


6
Humpty Dumpty

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the king's horses,
And all the king's men,
Couldn't put Humpty together again.

蛋人坐在墻上
蛋人摔了个大跟頭
就算聚集了国王所有的馬
就算聚集了国王所有的臣子
蛋人也不能恢復原来的樣子

備注:收錄在《少年孵化的声音》的扉頁中。

Humpty-dumpty是蛋的意思。字典里解釋為胖矮人,為蛋擬人化的称呼,出自英国童謠,其實也就是出自這里吧。


7
There was a lady all skin and bone

There was a lady all skin and bone,
Sure such a lady was never known:
It happened upon a certain day,
This lady went to church to pray.

从前有个皮包骨頭的女人,
当然你从没听說過這樣的女人:
一切發生在某一天,
這位女士去教堂作祷告。

When she came to the church stile, There she did rest a little while;
When she came to the church yard,
There the hells so loud she heard.

当她来到教堂階梯,
她停下来作了个小小的休息;
当她来到教堂墓园,
她听见地獄的呻吟声是如此响亮。

When she came to the church door,
She stopped to rest a little more;
When she came the church within,
The parson prayed 'gainst pride and sin.

当她来到教堂的門口,
她停下来又作了个小小的休息;
当她進入教堂,
牧師正抗拒着虚榮与罪惡作着祷告。

On looking up, on looking down,
She saw a dead man on the ground;
And from his nose unto his chin,
The worms crawled out,
the worms crawled in.

上看,下看,
她看見地上躺着一个死人;
从他的鼻子到下巴,
蛆們爬出,
蛆們蠕进。

Then she unto the parson said,
Shall I be so when I am dead?
O yes!
O yes, the parson said,
You will be so when you are dead.

然后她對牧師說,
我死后会變成這樣嗎?
噢,是的!
噢,是的,牧師說道,
你死后就会變成這樣。


8
There was a man, a very untidy man

There was a man,
a very untidy man,
Whose fingers could nowhere
be found to put in his tomb.
He had rolled his head far underneath the bed;
He had left his legs
and arms lying all over the room.

从前有个男子
一个非常骯髒的男子
他的手指无法被寻到
以放進他的墓中。
他把頭滾落到床下
四肢散落在房里。

備注 : 出自《誰殺了知更鳥》-《布丁小姐的悲劇》


9
Crooked man

There was a crooked man,
and he walked a crooked mile,
He found a crooked sixpence
against a crooked stile;
He bought a crooked cat,
which caught a crooked mouse,
And they all lived together in a little crooked house.

有个性格扭曲的男人
走在一条長一里的扭曲的路上
手里那着扭曲的六便士
踏在扭曲的台階上
他買了一只扭曲的猫
猫捉了一只扭曲的老鼠
他們一起住在扭曲的小房子里

備注: 出自《God Child vol.1》-《The Little Crooked House》

因為扭曲的愛成為了扭曲的人,然后住在了一棟扭曲的房子里。因為不想要失去,所以殺了她,做成人偶。扭曲的心灵,扭曲的孩子。童謠和漫画的意境真是配合的好啊!
經常被用在電影等当中,Mother Goose中的一首。因為是童謠,為了求押韵而玩了不少文字遊戲,所以很多文字是无意義的。


10
Baa, Baa, Black sheep

Baa, baa, black sheep,
Have you any wool ?
Yes, sir, yes, sir,
Three bags full;
One for the master,
And one for the dame,
And one for the little boy
Who lives down the lane.

,,羊,
你有羊毛嗎?
是的,先生,是的,先生,
三袋滿滿的
一袋給先生
一袋給夫人
還有一袋給那个
住在街尾的小男孩

備注: 出自《God Child vol.1》-《Black Sheep》

在最早的時候,最后一句是:什麽都没有給小男孩。童謠里“master”指的是国王,“dame”指的是貴族,“little boy”即是最底層的平民。揭示了上流社会的有錢人對底層人的壓迫和榨取。


11
Sing a song of six pences

Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocket full of rye;
Four and twenty blackbirds,
Baked in a pie.

唱一首六便士的歌,
慢慢一袋的麦;
24只鶇
烤在派中

When the pie was opened,
The birds began to sing;
Was not that a dainty dish,
To set before the king ?

当派被打開,
鳥兒們開始歌唱;
這是多麽美味的菜肴,
来擺放在国王面前。

The king was in his counting-house,
Counting out his money;
The queen was in the parlour,
Eating bread and honey.

国王在他的金庫里,
清点他的財富;
皇后在大厛里,
吃着面包和蜂蜜。

The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes,
There came a little blackbird,
And snapped off her nose.

女仆在花园里,
晾着刚洗的衣服,
来了只小鶇,
突然啄下她的鼻子。


備注: 出自《God Child vol.2》-《Bloodberry jam》

這首童謠大約是17世紀中叶在民出現,但在更早些時候似乎就有了迹象,在莎士比亚的《第12夜》中有這樣的一句話:Come on, there is sixpence for you; let's have a song. 1614年,在包蒙(Beaumont 1584-1616)和佛勒契(John Fletcher 1579-1625)合作的一部作品中有這樣的一句:Whoa, here's a stir now! Sing a song of sixpence!
在这首童謠中,皇帝指的是英国都铎王朝的第二代国王亨利八世(HenryⅧ,1509-1547),他的残暴乖戾在歷代君主中是很突出的,擁有6位妻子并処决了2位而聞名。童謠中的女王指的是凱瑟琳(Catherine of Aragon),她是西班牙阿拉貢国王斐迪南二世的女儿,曾經是亨利七世的妻子,亨利八世的第一任妻子,但是由于她没有為亨利生下皇子,漸漸導致亨利對她的冷淡,但又由于教会的原因使之遲遲不能廢后。“皇后在大厛里吃着面包和蜂蜜”這句算是影射了当時凱瑟琳被冷落的情形吧。在那時亨利看中了安妮·博林(Anne Boleyn, 1507?--1516),她是托马斯·博林爵士和伊麗莎白·霍華郡主的小女儿,也就是他的第2任妻子--童謠中的那个侍女。然而她也没有為亨利生下儿子,又由于她天生的生理缺陷和一些政治因素,安妮被控告与5个男人通奸,其中包括与她的親兄弟喬治?伯林通奸——乱倫的罪行被関進倫敦塔,随后于1536年5月19日被処决,成為第一个被処决的王后。這也就是“来了只小鶇,突然啄下她的鼻子”的來歷吧。童謠中的“派”和“24只鶇”分別是指格拉斯頓堡的管理人,和他所贈送給亨利八世的圣誕礼物。


12
There was an old man

There was an old man
And he had a calf
And that's half

从前有个老人
他養了一頭小牛
現在說到一半

He took him out of the stall
And put his on the wall
And that's all

老人把小牛帶出牛舍
再把它系在墻上
這就是全部

備注:出自《Mad tea party》
    《Scold's Bridle》
    《Zigeunerweisen》
    《Mortician's daughter》
    《Little Miss Muffet》
    《Bloody Maria》
    《Castrato》
    《ユダの接吻》
    《エディプスの刃》
    《Misericorde》
每一章的最后一句"And that's all"出自于此。


13
Little Miss Muffet

Little Miss Muffet
Sat on a tuffet,
Eating her curds and whey;
There came a big spider,
Who sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffet away

小瑪菲特小姐
坐在土堆上
吃着乳凝和乳清
来了一只大蜘蛛
坐在她旁邊
吓跑了瑪菲特小姐

備注: 出自《God Child vol.3》-《Little Miss Muffet》


14
What are little boys made of ?

What are little boys made of ?
Frogs and snails 
And puppy-dogs' tails, 

小男孩是由什麽做的?
青蛙和蝸牛
還有小狗的尾巴

What are little girls made of ? 
Suger and spice  
And all that's nice.

小女孩是由什么做的?
糖和香料
都是那麽的美好呀

備注:出自《God Child vol.4》-《Bloody Maria》

這是吉倍爾医生回憶小時候時出現的。放在這章里的具体用意覺得很隱晦。小男孩是由什麽做的?好象就是在質問吉倍爾的存在一樣。


15
Georgie Porgie

Georgie Porgie,
pudding and pie,
Kissed the girls and made them cry;
When the boys came out to play,
Georgie Porgie ran away.

喬治·珀治
布丁和派
親吻女孩惹她們哭
男孩們出来玩耍時
喬治·珀治就跑了

備注: 出自《God Child vol.2》-《Bloodyberry Jam》

16
Simple Simon

Simple Simon met a pieman
Going to the fair;
Says Simple Simon to the pieman,
"Let me taste your ware."

无知的西蒙遇見一个賣派的商人
正要往集市;
无知的西蒙對賣派的商人說:
“讓我嘗嘗你的東西。 ”

Says the pieman to Simple Simon,
"Show me first your penny."
Says Simple Simon to the pieman,
"Indeed I have not any."

商人對无知的西蒙說:
“先讓我看看你的便士吧。”
无知的西蒙对商人說:
“其實我身无分文。”

He went to catch a dickey bird,
And thought he could not fail,
Because he'd got a little salt,
To put upon his tail.

他去抓小鳥,
并認爲自己不会失敗,
因為他有一把鹽,
撒在它的尾巴上。

He went to take a bird's nest,
Was built upon a bough;
The branch gave way and Simon fell
Into a dirty slough.

他去取小鳥的窩,
那个筑在一根大樹枝上的鳥窩;
樹枝断了西蒙掉下来
落在骯髒的泥沼里。

He went to shoot a wild duck,
But wild duck flew away;
Say Simon, I can't hit him,
Because he will not stay.

他去打野鴨,
但是野鴨飛走了;
西蒙說,我打不中它,
因為他不呆在那里。

Simple Simon went a-fishing,
For to catch a whale;
All the water he had got
Was in his mother's pail.

无知的西蒙去釣魚,
想要釣一条鯨魚;
然而他所擁有的水
都在媽媽的水桶里。

Simple Simon went a-hunting,
For to catch a hare;
He rode an ass about the streets,
But couldn't find one there.

无知的西蒙去打獵,
想要打中一只野兔;
他騎着驢穿過街道,
那里找不到一只野兔。

He went for to eat honey,
Out of the mustard pot;
He bit his tongue until he cried,
That was all the good he got.

他去吃蜂蜜,
从一只餐桌上的芥末罐子;
他咬着自己的舌頭直到哭出来,
這就是他吃到的全部。

He went to ride a spotted cow
That had a little calf;
She threw him down upon the ground,
Which made the people laugh.

他去騎頭花斑牛
可母牛還有頭小牛;
母牛甩他在地上,
惹的人们笑哈哈。

Once Simon made a great snowball,
And brought it in to roast;
He laid it down before the fire,
And soon the ball was lost.

一次西蒙做了个大雪球,
把它帶回来烤一烤;
把它放在火前面,
雪球一会儿不見了。

He went to slide upon the ice
Before the ice would bear;
Then he plunged in above his knees,
Which made poor Simon stare.

他到冰上去滑冰
在冰還能支撑前;
接着他陷入水中直到膝盖,
可怜的西蒙睜大了眼。

He washed himself with blacking ball,
Because he had no soap;
Then said unto his mother,
"I'm a beauty now, I hope."

他用色的鞋油来洗澡,
因為他没有肥;
然后他對媽媽說:
“我現在很漂亮,我希望。”

Simple Simon went to look
If plums grew on a thistle;
He pricked his fingers very much,
Which made poor Simon whistle.

无知的西蒙去看看
李子是不是長在蓟上;
手被刺傷了好几次,
可怜的西蒙唿哨着。

He went for water in a sieve,
But soon it all ran through.
And now poor Simple Simon
Bids you all adieu.

他用篩网取水,
但是水很快就漏光了。
可怜而又无知的西蒙啊
永遠地再見了

備注: 出自《God Child vol.8》-《Godless》
最后一章的最后一句"Bids you all adieu"應該就是出自這首童謠吧。"Bids you all adieu"可以理解為“永別”的意思。“bid"是在這里是“吩咐,告訴”的意思。"adieu"是从法語衍生而来的。"adieu"是“再見,辞別”的意思。从中古英語"adew"變化而来,這个詞又是从古代法語"adieu"(à + dieu)来的,意義為“献身于神”,"dieu"是“神”的意思。綜合起来看,就可以理解為“永別”的意思了。哎……也就是說該隱的故事再也不会有了,那是最終的了。他帶着優雅的微笑,Bids you all adieu.

スポンサーサイト




このコメントは管理者の承認待ちです
【2006/12/09 15:23】 | #[ 編集]
Hahaa~~What's wrong with U????
Thank You~
And Best Wishes for Uv-255
【2006/12/09 16:57】 URL | 奈々 #-[ 編集]














管理者にだけ表示を許可する


| HOME |


Design by mi104c.
Copyright © 2017 天使の領域, All rights reserved.

上記広告は1ヶ月以上更新のないブログに表示されています。新しい記事を書くことで広告を消せます。